Сausative form в английском языке: have something done / have someone do

Causative form в английском языке представлена следующими конструкциями

  • have something done (дословно – иметь что-то сделанным для себя же)
  • have someone do something (заставить кого-то что-то сделать для вас)

HAVE SMTH DONE

Мы используем выражение have + object + past participle (have something done) чтобы описать услугу, которую нам оказали, или какое-то неприятное событие, которое с нами произошло в тех случаях, когда действие производим не мы, но направленно оно на нас или на нашу собственность.  

Например:

I had my car stolen – У меня украли машину.

We had the roof repaired last year. – Нам починили крышу в прошлом году.

Не has had his application turned down – Eго заявление отклонили.

My girlfriend has her letter published in the Times – Письмо моей девушки напечатали в Таймс.

В качестве подлежащего в таком предложении будет выступать человек, на которого направленно действие, либо лицо, на чью собственность направлено действие. Такая конструкция в английском языке используется довольно часто.

Обратите внимание, в устной речи выражение часто употребляется с get вместо have без изменения в значении.

We have our fence pulled down = We get our fence pulled down.

Как использовать выражение have something done?

Causative form have something done можно использовать в любом времени. При этом меняется только глагол to have. Давайте рассмотрим на примере предложения We have the office cleaned (В нашем офисе провели уборку)

Present Simple

We have the office cleaned

Past  Simple

We had the office cleaned

Future Simple

We will have the office cleaned

Present Continuous

We are having the office cleaned

Past  Continuous

We were having the office cleaned

Future Continuous

We will be having the office cleaned

Present Perfect

We have had the office cleaned

Past  Perfect

We had had the office cleaned

Future Perfect

We will have had the office cleaned

Present Perfect Continuous

We have been having the office cleaned

Past  Perfect Continuous

We had been having the office cleaned

Future Perfect Continuous

We will have been having the office cleaned

Конечно, все формы Perfect Continuous и форма Future Perfect практически не используются в устной речи, так как слишком перегружены вспомогательными глаголами.  

HAVE SMB DO SMTH

Вторая возможная форма Causative – have someone do something. Это выражение более характерно для американского, нежели для британского английского. Оно означает, что вы заставили / попросили кого-либо что-то для вас сделать.

Например:

I will have the waiter bring you the menu. – Я попрошу официанта принести тебе меню.

I had my assistant type the report. – Я попросил помощника напечатать отчет.

В Британии вместо have часто говорят get, как и в случае с выражением have / get something done. Однако, при использовании get, выражение будет вида get someone to do something (появляется частица to).

I will get the waiter to bring you the menu.

I got my assistant to type the report.

Таким образом, causative в английском языке представлен следующими конструкциями:

  • Have something done

  • Get something done

  • Have someone do something

  • Get someone to do something.

causative forms

Упражнения на Causative form с ответами.

Давайте немного попрактикуемся.

Упражнение 1.  Complete the sentences using the correct form of “to have something done”

  1. The Smiths ___________ the roof _______________ last year. (repair)
  2. Molly ______________ the room ____________________ next month. (decorate)
  3. You should ___________ your eyes ___________ regularly. (test)
  4. We ___________ the television _________________ only last year! (repair)
  5. ________ you ____________ your car ______________ regularly?   (service)
  6. How often ___________ you _____________ your windows _____________? (clean)
  7. We _________________ the office _________________ every evening. (clean)
  8. Our neighbors __________________ a new garage ______________ at the moment (build)

Упражнение 2. Write down the sentences using the correct causative form. Use a modal verb where appropriate.

  1. Bob must/ really / the heating / fix. Winter is coming soon.
  2. She / her hair / dye blonde yesterday.
  3. They / the rooms / paint at the moment.
  4. After Alex / the sleeves / shorten, the blazer fit him perfectly.
  5. Instead of buying a new car, why / you / not / your old one / fix / ?
  6. What are those workmen doing in your garden? – Oh, we / a garage / build
  7. They / not / their TV / fix / yet
  8. Her coffee maker was broken. Now it’s working again. She / it /repair

Упражнение 3. Rewrite the sentences using HAVE SOMETHING DONE

  1. Someone cut Kate’s hair at 13.30 pm.

Kate ……………………………………………………

  1. The mechanic is changing Peter’s car battery.

                Peter ………………………………………………...

  1. The hairdresser dyed my mother’s hair last Saturday.

                My mother  ………………………………………...

  1. Someone checks Henry’s guitar after every show.

                Henry ……………………………………………………

  1. The dentist checks my teeth once a year.

                I ……………………………………………………………………

Упражнение 3. Rewrite the sentences using HAVE SOMEBODY DO SOMETHING

  1. The mechanic changes Peter’s car battery yearly.

                Peter ………………………………………………...

  1. The hairdresser dyed my mother’s hair last Saturday.

                My mother  ………………………………………...

  1. The assistant checks Henry’s guitar after every show.

                Henry ……………………………………………………

  1. The dentist checks my teeth once a year.

                I ……………………………………………………………………

Ответы:

Exercise 1.

  1. The Smiths had the roof repaired last year.
  2. Molly is going to have/is having the room decorated next month.
  3. You should have your eyes tested regularly.
  4. We had the television repaired only last year!
  5. Do you have your car serviced regularly?
  6. How often do you have your windows cleaned?
  7. We have the office cleaned every evening.
  8. Our neighbors are having a new garage built at the moment.

Exercise 2.

  1. Bob really must have the heating fixed.
  2. She had her hair dyed blonde yesterday
  3. They are having the rooms painted at the moment
  4. After Alex had had the sleeves shortened, the blazer fit him perfectly.
  5. Instead of buying a new car, why don’t you have your old one fixed?
  6. We are having a garage built.
  7. They have not had their TV fixed yet.

Exercise 3.

  1. Kate had her hair cut at 13.30 pm.
  2. Peter is having his car battery changed.
  3. My mother had her hair dyed last Saturday.
  4. Henry has his guitar checked after every show.
  5. I have my teeth checked once a year.

Exercise 4.

  1. Peter has the mechanic change his car battery yearly.
  2. My mother had the hairdresser dye her hair last Saturday.
  3. Henry has his assistant check his guitar after every show.
  4. I have the dentist check my teeth once a year.

Надеюсь, правила и упражнения помогли Вам разобраться в теме causative forms.

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