Союзы английского языка: таблица союзов, упражнения на использование

Союзы в английском языке

Союзы в английском языке, как и в русском, — это части речи, служащие для соединения слов словосочетаний и предложений.

В английском языке союзы могут состоять:

  • из одного слова: and, by, as, because yet, etc.
  • из нескольких слов (in case, as soon as, on condition (that), in spite of, so that, etc.),
  • а также употребляться в пape (both ... and, neither... nor, as... as, etc.) – это так называемые парные союзы

В зависимости от характера синтаксической связи союзы в английском языке подразделяются на:

  • сочинительные союзы (coordinate conjunctions) — соединяют однородные члены простого предложения или части сложносочинённого предложения, а также отдельные предложения;
  • подчинительные союзы (subordinate conjunctions) — соединяют главное предложение с придаточным в сложноподчинённом предложении и указывают на тип придаточного: времени, причины, характера действия и пр.

Таблица сочинительных союзов с переводом и примерами.

К сочинительным союзам относятся and, but, or, both ... and, neither ... nor, yet. nevertheless, besides, however, therefore, so, moreover, etc.

Сочинительные союзы могут передавать такие значения, как: добавочная информация, пояснение, противопоставление, контраст, обобщение и т.д.

Союзы с переводом

Примеры употребления

And – и (a / но)

I ordered a few pizzas and we settled down comfortably to discuss the latest news.

But — но

This method of teaching is widely used but it's not yet clear that it's the best method.

Or — или

The stew is so thick that you can eat it with a fork or spoon.

Both…and – как … так и

Both my friends and my relatives came to my party.

neither ... nor – ни … ни

Neither my friends nor my relatives came to my party.

Either … or – или… или / либо … либо

Either my brother or my sister is at home

Yet — однако, тем не менее; всё же, несмотря на это; но

She was angry with me, yet I didn't care.

Nevertheless — тем не менее, однако, несмотря на; всё-таки

They tried their best to calm me down, nevertheless l couldn't help feeling excited.

Besides – сверх того, кроме того

Jane attends French classes twice a week. Besides she does yoga on Fridays.

However — однако

Tom has a lot of experience: however, he didn’t get the job.

So – так что, поэтому, для того, чтобы

John spent seven hours studying, so now he can go for a walk.

Moreover — сверх того, кроме того

I got a nice salary, moreover they gave me a company car.

Therefore — вследствие этого, поэтому

The dollar has gone down against the yen. Therefore Japanese goods are more expensive than American.

Nor  — также не, тоже не

Rick refuses to eat cat food, nor will he touch the milk.

Таблица подчинительных союзов с переводом и примерами

Придаточные времени вводятся следующими союзами:

Союзы с переводом

Примеры употребления

After – после (того)

I will go home after I complete the work

as soon as – как только

As soon as I am ready I’ll give you a call

as long as – пока, до тех пор, пока

I will be happy as long as you love me.

Before – до (того)

Before you go to bed, clean your room

Till –пока, до тех пор пока (не)

We can't do anything till they approve of our plan.

Until -  пока, до тех пор пока (не)

We can't do anything until they approve of our plan.

When — когда

I’ll go out when the rain stops

Whenever – когда бы ни, всякий раз когда

I come whenever you need me.

While — пока

What happened while I was gone?

Возможно, вам будет интересно прочесть статью о союзах till и until.

Придаточные условия вводятся следующими союзами:

Союзы с переводом

Примеры употребления

If – если

I’ll go for a walk if the weather is fine.

even if – даже если

I’ll go for a walk even  if the weather is rainy.

in case – в случае / на случай

He took a torch in case there was no light in the attic.

Provided (that) — при условии, если только; в том случае, если

Provided that all is safe, you may go.

Unless – если не

Wе’ll go for a walk unless it rains

Once – раз уж, так как (уже)

Once you've completed all that work, you might go home

Возможно, вам будет интересно прочесть статью об употреблении союза unless.

Придаточные места вводятся следующими союзами:

Союзы с переводом

Примеры употребления


I don’t know where to go


Now that you have a car you can go wherever you want.

Придаточные причины / цели вводятся следующими союзами:

Союзы с переводом

Примеры употребления

Because – потому что

I’m angry because she’s let me down

Since – так как

Since she is right, you are mistaken.

As – так как

She was late, as she had got stuck in the traffic jam

in order that — чтобы

She got up earlier in order that not to be late

so that – так чтобы

She swept the leaves away so that she could sit.

Придаточные образа действия (в том числе сравнения) / уступки вводятся следующими союзами:

Союзы с переводом

Примеры употребления

just as – точно так же

God was God's name just as his name was Stephen.

Whereas — тогда как; несмотря на то, что

Global warming has a negative impact on third-world agriculture, whereas it has a positive impact on first-world farming

As — словно

I feel her, as she is here

Although – хотя

She insisted on her idea, although she was not right.

even though — даже если, хотя

There was something alive in my thoughts even though time had mellowed them.

Though –хотя

She insisted on her idea, though she was not right.

As if

He behaves as if he were the boss here

Обратите внимание: некоторые союзы, в частности, since, after, before, until омонимичны по форме с предлогами и наречиями.

Теперь, когда вы познакомились с основной частью союзов в английском языке, предлагаю Вам выполнить упражнения на их употребление.


Упражнения на союзы.

Упражнение 1. Make up compound sentences by using the right coordinating conjunctions in brackets.

  1. His job is very hard, (yet / therefore) his salary is low.
  2. I’m sorry I opened your handbook, (however / but) I mistook it for mine.
  3. Alex lost his job a year ago, (however / or) he soon managed to find another one.
  4. I know she’s hard to deal with, (and / nevertheless) you ought not to be rude to her.
  5. I’ve been living here for many years, (but / and) I don’t know the place very well.
  6. Her life is very peaceful,l (or / yet) she is always complaining.
  7. We haven’t got much in common, (moreover / but) we get on with each other fairly well.
  8. Тоm is 17 (or / and) he is studying at college.
  9. The rent is reasonable, (moreover / but) the location is perfect.
  10. My mum dislikes pets, (nevertheless / and) she bought a puppy for us.
  11. You can take a horse to water (and / but) you can’t make him drink.
  12. She was rushing to the office, (therefore / but) she couldn’t talk to me.
  13. A lot of novels are published every year, (therefore / however) very few of them become bestsellers.
  14. I didn’t talk to the Director (or / but) I talked to the Manager.
  15. Sam sat down on the bench (but / and) Lucy sat besides him.

Упражнение 2. Make up complex sentences by using the right subordinating conjunction

  1. Since / Just as there’s too much work to do, we won’t go on holiday.
  2. I’d better take an umbrella in саse /whether it rains.
  3. Just keep an eye on the baby while / whereas I cook the supper, will you?
  4. Many of the children feel more confident if / though they work in groups.
  5. Although / in order that he hasn’t said anything, he seems to be upset about it.
  6. You must be careful while / unless you wash this delicate silk blouse.
  7. I’d like to find out when / even if the classes begin.
  8. By / as long as the time you receive this letter, I’ll have left for Japan.
  9. At last, after / as long as he had tried three times, he passed his exam.
  10. The manager didn’t offer him the job because / although his appearance was very untidy.
  11. Even if / When there are small children around, it’s better to put breakable ornaments out of their reach.
  12. Unless / Until you hurry, you won’t catch the bus.
  13. I couldn’t resist having another slice of cake in case / even though I was supposed to be losing some weight.
  14. Leave the cake in the oven until / because it turns brown.

Упражнение 3. Укажите правильный союз.

  1. Mark can’t leave his job ... he has found another one. (A as soon as / В until / C when)
  2. My son’s hair got darker ... he got older. (A as / В if / C as long as)
  3. I’ll lend you this book ... I have finished reading it. (A unless / В in case  / C when)
  4. … I lived farther from the school than any other pupil, I was often the last to arrive. (A Although / В Despite /C Since)
  5. I stood on a chair ... I could reach the upper shelf. (A because / В so that /C as)

Ответы к упражнениям.

Упражнение 1.

1 yet, 2 but, 3 however, 4 nevertheless, 5 but, 6 yet, 7 but, 8 and, 9 moreover, 10 nevertheless, 11 but, 12 therefore, 13 however, 14 but, 15 and

Упражнение 2.

1 Since, 2 in case, 3 while, 4 if, 5 although, 6 while, 7 when, 8  by, 9 after, 10 because, 11 when, 12 unless,  13 even though, 14 until

Упражнение 3.

B, A, C, С, B

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